Crith Gablach: On Status
c. 700 AD
H 3.18 p 7a7
If thou be a king thou shouldst know
the prerogative of a ruler,
reflection according to rank,
contentions of hostings,
sticks quarrels in an alehouse
contracts made in drunkenness;
valuations of lands,
measurement by poles;
augmentations of a penalty,
larceny of tree-fruit; 
the great substance of land-law:
marking out fresh boundaries,
planting of stakes,
the law as to points of stakes,
partition among coheirs,
summoning of neighbours,
stone pillars of contest
fighters who fasten title.
From a king;
the extent of protection; 
right of the fine up to the sixth man
in movables and land.
Valid is every neighbor-law
that is contracted by pledges
and secured by fines consisting of sacks.
Greater or smaller
is the value of penalties.
The penalty for breaching a boundary fence:
from a bull-calf to a heifer-calf,
from that to a yearling beast, 
up to five seoit it extends.
What are the most oppressive cases of tree-cutting
for which fools are mulcted?
The hospitallers of the forest,
the ivied hazel.
A danger from which there is no escape
is the penalty for felling the sacred tree.
Thou shalt not cut a sacred tree
and escape with the fines for the seven noble trees
on account of the fine of three cows 
that is fixed for cutting its stem.
There are others, seven
atoned for in seoit due for undergrowth.
Let me venture for [the benefit] of the immature
to state the immune things of the forest:
a single cauldron's cooking-wood that is cut,
a handful of ripe nuts
to which one stretches not his hand in satiety.
Freest of it all
is the right of removal. 
The penalty for the oak,
the penalty for lobbing its larger limbs
with its life-sustaining mast;
the stem-cutting of the yew;
the same penalty for cutting the holly tree.
Most oppressive of it all
is the penalty of the seven commoners of the forest
for each of which there is a cow as payment:
the stem cutting of the birch,
the peril of the alder, 
the undermining of the willow.
Declare restitution for them.
the maiming of the whitethorn
and of the blackthorn;
it restitution extends to the undergrowth of the wood,
the undergrowth of fern,
of bog-myrtle, of reeds,
save that these are free to lords.
Stealthy penetration, stealthy intrusion,
driving to and fro, 
looking on idly, tethering
overleaping by birds,
deer and pet animals,
overleaping by dogs,
trespass by bees;
dire in thirds are payable in penalties
which the preliminary pledge comprehends;
driving forward, traversing, 
sudden breeches across the road,
stampeding across holdings.
similarly over strands.
Measurement of the fore-end
with a cast by a stripling,
supervising the observance of land law,
marking out fresh boundaries,
final responsibility for trespass.
Let fines be forthcoming
on the fifth day after the offenses 
according to the law of neighbours.
What single ox shares liability with the drove?
What overleaping by a single piglet shares liability with the herds?
What are the drivings carried out negligently
for which final responsibility is not enforced?
What are the concealed drivings forward?
On which grazing-expense does not fall?
What are the unauthorized stalkings
which deserve immunity?
What are the larcenies from houses 
which do not entail a penalty?
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