The Celtic Literature Collective

Greek and Roman References to the Celts

Due to their close relationship (mostly antagonistic), it is only natural that the Greeks and Romans would write about their neighbors.  These early writings on the various Celtic tribes, their culture and religion are quite illuminating, as the Celts left no writings of their own until several centuries after the introduction of Christianity. Some, like Tacitus, are somewhat sympathetic to their subject, while others, such as Pliny, regard them as barbarians with con-men for leaders. C'est la vive.

Greek English
Anonymous (6th C BCE)
Massaliote Periplus (lost)
Hecataeus of Miletus (fl. 560 - 480 BC)
See Herodotus
Herodotus (~440 BCE)
Ιστοριαι The Histories
Plato (427-347 BCE)
Laws: On Drunkeness.
Pytheas of Massallia
Περί τού Ωκεανού On the Ocean (lost)
Aristotle (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC)
Eudemian Ethics
Nicomachean Ethics
Apollonius of Rhodes (3rd C BCE)
Argonautica: the Celtic Apollo
Polybius (~203 BC - 120 BC)
The Histories
Parthenius of Nicea (fl. 70 BCE)
Erotica Pathemata Of the Sorrows of Love: How Herakles begot Celtus on Celtine.
Diodorus Siculus (fl. 50 BCE) Διόδωρος Σιズελιώτης
Bibliotheka Historia
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (c.60 BC - after 7 BC)
Roman Antiquities: The Sack of Rome by Brennus and the Gauls
Strabo (~64/63 BCE - 24 CE)
Geography: Book Three: Iberia
Geography: Book Four: Celtica
Josephus (30 CE - 100)
Antiquitates Judaicae The Antiquities of the Jews: On the Gauls
Antiquitates Judaicae The Antiquities of the Jews: Herod is given Gauls as guards
De bello Judaico The Wars of the Jews: on the rebellion of the Gauls
De bello Judaico The Wars of the Jews: Gauls in Herod Antipas' funeral procession
De bello Judaico The Wars of the Jews: Herod Agrippa's warning against rebellion
Contra Apionem Against Apion: On Greek Ignorance
Claudius Ptolemy (85 CE - 165)
Γεογραφια Geography:
Ίούερνία Book II, Ch.1: Ireland
Αλουιον Book II, Ch. 2: Albion (Britain)
Aquitania Gallia
Lugdunensis Gallia
Belgica Gallia
Narbonensis Gallia
Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' (ca. 86 - after 146)
Αλέξανδρου Αναβασις Anabasis of Alexander
Lucian of Samosata (120 CE - 180)
Introduction to Herakles: the description of Ogmios.
Cassius Dio Cocceianus (c. 155 – after 229)
Roman History:
Book VII: The Gaulish Invasion of Rome (with Zonaras' commentaries)
Book VIII: The Gaulish support for Carthage
Caesar's Gallic War and Invasion of Britain: Book XXXVIII, XXXIX, Book XL
Book LXII: Bodicca and the British Revolt
Book LXIII: Vindex and the Gaulish Revolt
Life of Apollodorus Tyanus: The Celts of Iberia
Pausianas (fl. 2nd C. CE)
The Description of Greece: The Sack of Delphi by Brennus and Bolgius
Polyaenus (mid 2nd C CE)
History 8.39
Herodian of Syria (c. 170-240)
History of the Empire: On an appearance of Belenus at Aquileia
Athenaeus of Naucratis (fl. 200 AD)
Δειπνοσοφισταί Deipnosophists: The Dinner Party
Diogenes Laertius (fl. 230 CE)
The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers introduction
Dionysius Periegetes (fl. 275 CE)
Οίκουμένης περιήγησις Orbis Terrae Descriptio
Ephorus of Cymae (<350 CE)
Universal History
Zosimus (ca 450-510)
Historia Nova, Book VI.1-13
Olympiodorus (fl. 412-425 AD)
Histories (extracted from Photius' Bibliotheka.)

Latin English
Cicero (106-43 BC)
De Divinatione On Divination
Julius Caesar (July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC)
Commentarii de Bello Gallico The Gallic Wars
The Gallic Wars: selections from book six
Livy (~59 BCE - AD CE)
The History of Rome: Book Five: The Gauls destroy Rome.
Claudius (August 1, 10 BC – October 13, 54 CE)
Arcus Claudii Arch of Claudius
Oratio ad senatum de iure honorum Gallis dando Lyon Tablet: On Admitting Gauls as Citizens
Pomponius Mela (fl. 40 CE)
De Situ Orbis: Galliae
Pliny the Elder (23 - 79 CE)
Natural History: selections
Senatus PopulusQue Romanus (52 CE)
Triumphal Arch of Claudius Triumphal Arch of Claudius
Lucan (November 3, AD 39 - April 30, 65)
Pharsalia: selections from book one
Valerius Flaccus (70 CE)
Titus Catius Silius Italicus (25 or 26 - 101 CE)
Punica, Book III.
Marcus Valerius Martialis (March 1 40 - ca 102 AD)
Dion Chrysostom (ca. 40–ca. 120)
Orations XLIX
Mestrius Plutarchus (c. 46- 127)
The Life of Camillus: The Sack of Rome by Brennus and the Gauls
Moralia from Moralia: On the Bravery of Women:
VI. The Celtic Women
XX. Camma
XXI. Stratonice
XXII. Chiomara
XXIII. a Woman of Pergamum
Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis
Marcus Valerius Martialis (March 1 40 - ca 102 AD)
Tacitus (c. 55–c. 117 CE)
The Life of Agricola
Annals: selections
History: selections from book four
Suetonius (75-160 CE)
Selections from The Lives of the Twelve Caesars:
Julius Caesar
Caligula and Claudius
Lucius Apuleius Platonicus (c. AD 123/125-c. AD 180)
Metamorphoses: On a statue of Epona The Golden Ass
Tertullian (ca. 155 – 230)
De Anima On Spirits: on oracles
Apologeticus Apologetics: on gods
Ad Nationes On Nations: on Epona and the worship of Asses
Minucius Felix (ca. 166 - 198)
Octavius: on Epona
Claudius Aelianus (ca. 175–ca. 235)
De Natura Animalium On Animals
Book XII: On geese saving Rome from the Gauls
Book XVII: On Celts and Birds
Origen (185 - 254 CE)
Against Celus
Marcus Junianus Justinus (3rd C. CE)
Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus: on the Gallic sack of Delphi.
Clement of Alexandria (d. 211-216?)
The Stromata
Hippolytus, St. (d. 236 CE)
The Refution of All Heresies
Flavius Eutropius (ca. 370 CE)
Historiae Romanae Breviarium
Decimus Magnus Ausonius (c. 310-395 CE)
Attius Patera Attius Patera
To the Latin grammarians To the Latin grammarians
Apotheosis: on Epona
Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-391+ CE)
Res Gestae Divi Augustae Roman History: The Origin of the Gauls
Jerome, St. (340/2 - Sept. 30, 420 CE)
Ad Iovinanus Against Jovinanus: on Celtic cannibalism
Paulus Orosius (385-420 CE)
Historium adversum paganos
Claudius Claudianus (f. 395-404)
de consulatu Stilichonis On Stilicho's Consulship
de bello Gothico The Gothic War
In Eutropium Against Eutropius
Aelius Lampridius (late 4th century?)
The Life of Severus Alexander
Postumius Rufius Festus Avienus (4th century)
Ora Maritima
St. Augustine of Hippo (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430)
Civitate Dei The City of God: on Gallic Demons
Flavius Vopiscus (late 4th century?)
Historia Augusta The Later Caesars: Diocletian and the Druidess
Hermias Sozomenus (ca. 400 - 450)
Ecclessiastic History
Cyril of Alexandria (412-444 AD)
Contra Julianum 4
Anonymous (ca. 420 CE)
Notitia Dignitatum Register of Dignitaries
Prosperi Tironis (fl. 433 - 455 CE)
Epitoma Chronicon
Anonymous (ca. 450 CE)
Narratio de imperatoribus domus Valentinianae et Theodosiane
Victorius of Aquitaine (fl. 457)
Cursus Paschalis Cursus Paschalis
Fulgentius (ca. 500)
On Semones and Epona
Saint Isidore of Seville (c. 560 – April 4, 636)
Etymologiae Etymologies
Maritime Itinerary of Antonius Augustus
Nomina provinciarum omnium
Orphic Argonautica
Panegyric on Constantine Augustus
Panegyric on Constantius Caesar
Anonymous (ca. 700 CE)
Ravenna Cosmography